初心者向け!!バスケットボールの基本ルール!(英語の勉強)

バスケットボールのルールを知らないというあなた!!英語を勉強しようとしているそこのあなた!!!

今回はバスケットボールのルールを英語の勉強とともにご紹介しようと思います。バスケットボールのルールを覚えて、英語も覚えて、ダブルで成長しちゃいましょう♪

 

『バスケットボールの基本情報: BASIC INFO』

【バスケの概要とルール】

Basketball is a team sport. Two teams of five players each try to score by shooting a ball through a hoop elevated 10 feet above the ground. The game is played on a rectangular floor called the court, and there is a hoop at each end. The court is divided into two main sections by the mid-court line. If the offensive team puts the ball into play behind the mid-court line, it has eight seconds to get the ball over the mid-court line. If it doesn’t, then the defense gets the ball. Once the offensive team gets the ball over the mid-court line, it can no longer have possession of the ball in the area in back of the line. If it does, the defense is awarded the ball.

バスケットボールはチームスポーツです。各チーム5人ずつが、長方形の各サイドに305㎝のリングが備え付けてある「コート」と呼ばれる中でシュートをして得点を競い合うスポーツです。コートはハーフラインで二分化されており、オフェンスのチームは8秒以内にハーフコートを超える必要があります。もし8秒以内にハーフコートを超えられない場合ボールは相手ボールとなります。そして、オフェンスによりいったんハーフコートを超えたボールがバックコートに戻った場合、相手ボールとなります。

The ball is moved down the court toward the basket by passing or dribbling. The team with the ball is called the offense. The team without the ball is called the defense. They try to steal the ball, contest shots, steal and deflect passes, and garner rebounds.

コート内のボールの動きはパスとドリブルの2種類があります。ボールを持っているチームがオフェンスと言い、ボールを持っていないチームがディフェンスと言います。ディフェンスはボールを奪うことを目的とし、シュートを邪魔したり、パスをカットし、リバウンドを取ります。

When a team makes a basket, they score two points and the ball goes to the other team. If a basket, or field goal, is made outside of the three-point arc, then that basket is worth three points. A free throw is worth one point. Free throws are awarded to a team according to some formats involving the number of fouls committed in a half and/or the type of foul committed. Fouling a shooter always results in two or three free throws being awarded the shooter, depending upon where he was when he shot. If he was beyond the three-point line, then he gets three shots. Other types of fouls do not result in free throws being awarded until a certain number have accumulated during a half.

オフェンスが得点を入れると2点が加算され、ボールは相手チームにわたります。ただ、オフェンスの得点がスリーポイントラインの外側になると3点が加算されます。フリースローは1点加算がされ、フリースローが行われるシチュエーションとしては、チームのファールが5つを累計で越えた時やシュートを打っている人に対しての反則によっての2つがあり、その都度1本、2本、3本と打つ数が変動します。

 

『反則行為: FOULS and VIOLATIONS』

【個人ファール: Personal Fouls】

Personal fouls: Personal fouls include any type of illegal physical contact.

個人ファールは基準を超えた接触があった際に審判により指摘されるものになります。

  • Hitting(ハッキング)
  • Pushing(プッシング)
  • Slapping(ハッキング)
  • Holding(ホールディング)
  • Illegal pick/screen (ムービングスクリーン)- when an offensive player is moving. When an offensive player sticks out a limb and makes physical contact with a defender in an attempt to block the path of the defender.
  • Charging(チャージング)- an offensive foul that is committed when a player pushes or runs over a defensive player. The ball is given to the team that the foul was committed upon.
  • Blocking(ブロッキング)- Blocking is illegal personal contact resulting from a defender not establishing position in time to prevent an opponent’s drive to the basket.
  • Intentional Fouls(インテンショナルファール)-  When a player makes physical contact with another player with no reasonable effort to steal the ball. It is a judgment call for the officials.
  • Technical Fouls(テクニカルファール)- A player or a coach can commit this type of foul. It does not involve player contact or the ball but is instead about the ‘manners’ of the game. Foul language, obscenity, obscene gestures, and even arguing can be considered a technical foul, as can technical details regarding filling in the scorebook improperly or dunking during warm-ups.

Personal foul penalties: ファールをされた場合のボールの受け取り方

【フリースロー】

If a player is shooting while a being fouled, then he gets two free throws if his shot doesn’t go in, but only one free throw if his shot does go in.

ファールされた選手がシュートを打っていた場合は、フリースローが2本行われます。しかし、シュートが入った場合は1本になります。

  • Three free throws are awarded if the player is fouled while shooting for a three-point goal and they miss their shot. If a player is fouled while shooting a three-point shot and makes it anyway, he is awarded one free throw. Thus, he could score four points on the play.

フリースロー3本はスリーポイントラインの外側でファールをされて、シュートが入らなかった場合に打つことができます。

【ボール入れ】

  • Inbounds. If fouled while not shooting, the ball is given to the team the foul was committed upon. They get the ball at the nearest side or baseline, out of bounds, and have 5 seconds to pass the ball onto the court.

ボール入れはシュートではないファールの際に行われます。ボールは一番近いサイドラインかエンドラインから5秒以内に出され無ければいけません。

【バイオレーションズ Violations】

  • Walking/Traveling(トラベリング)Taking more than ‘a step and a half’ without dribbling the ball is traveling. Moving your pivot foot once you’ve stopped dribbling is traveling.
  • Double Dribble(ダブルドリブル)Dribbling the ball with both hands on the ball at the same time or picking up the dribble and then dribbling again is a double dribble.
  • Carrying/palming(キャリーオーバー)When a player dribbles the ball with his hand too far to the side of or, sometimes, even under the ball.
  • Held ball(ヘルドボール) Occasionally, two or more opposing players will gain possession of the ball at the same time. In order to avoid a prolonged and/or violent tussle, the referee stops the action and awards the ball to one team or the other on a rotating basis.
  • Goaltending(インターフェア) If a defensive player interferes with a shot while it’s on the way down toward the basket, while it’s on the way up toward the basket after having touched the backboard, or while it’s in the cylinder above the rim, it’s goaltending and the shot counts. If committed by an offensive player, it’s a violation and the ball is awarded to the opposing team for a throw-in.
  • Backcourt violation(バックコート)Once the offense has brought the ball across the mid-court line, they cannot go back across the line during possession. If they do, the ball is awarded to the other team to pass inbounds.
  • Time restrictions(オーバータイム)- A player passing the ball inbounds has five seconds to pass the ball. If he does not, then the ball is awarded to the other team. Other time restrictions include the rule that a player cannot have the ball for more than five seconds when being closely guarded and, in some states and levels, shot-clock restrictions requiring a team to attempt a shot within a given time frame.

 

『ポジション: POSITION』

【ポジション: Positions】

  • Center(センター). Centers are generally your tallest players. They generally are positioned near the basket.

センターはチーム内で一番大きなプレイヤーであることが多く、一番バスケットボールリングに近い存在である。

Offensive — The center’s goal is to get open for a pass and to shoot. They are also responsible for blocking defenders, known as picking or screening, to open other players up for driving to the basket for a goal. Centers are expected to get some offensive rebounds and put-backs.

Defensive — On defense, the center’s main responsibility is to keep opponents from shooting by blocking shots and passes in the key area. They also are expected to get a lot of rebounds because they’re taller.

  • Forward(フォワード)Your next tallest players will most likely be your forwards. While a forward may be called upon to play under the hoop, they may also be required to operate in the wings and corner areas.

フォワードはセンターの次に大きな選手で、ゴール下にいたりコートのサイドにいたりとする。

Offensive — Forwards are responsible to get free for a pass, take outside shots, drive for goals, and rebound.

Defensive — Responsibilities include preventing drives to the goal and rebounding.

  • Guard (ガード)These are potentially your shortest players and they should be really good at dribbling fast, seeing the court, and passing. It is their job to bring the ball down the court and set up offensive plays.

ガードは小さな選手でドリブルが上手く、コート全体をみえていてパスのさばける人になる。コート内の司令塔的存在。

Offensive — Dribbling, passing, and setting up offensive plays are a guard’s main responsibilities. They also need to be able to drive to the basket and to shoot from the perimeter.

Defensive — On defense, a guard is responsible for stealing passes, contesting shots, preventing drives to the hoop, and for boxing out.

 

【まとめ】『初心者向け!!バスケットボールの基本ルール!(英語の勉強)』

いかかだったでしょうか?

・バスケットボールの基本情報:Basic Info

・反則行為: Fouls and Violations

・ポジション:Positions

These are all critical fundamentals to master because they’ll make you and your team better, no matter what age level or situation you might be in.

これらのバスケのルールは基本的なことで年齢やレベルを問わず、どんな時でも当てはまることが多いと思う。

バスケットボールを学び、英語を学びスポーツも勉強もできる人になろう。

 

Reference: https://www.breakthroughbasketball.com/basics/basics.html

餅つきうさぎ
About 餅つきうさぎ 314 Articles
中学時代にアメリカでバスケを経験し、日本人にはない独特のプレイスタイルで得点を量産する。HOOPS編集部では1番知的な毒舌キャラ。

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